MONDAY – JULY 26, 2021

Short Courses – A highlight of the Clearwater Clean Energy Conference is the Short Courses offered on Monday, July 26th, the Opening Day of the Conference.  We’ve enlisted the leading experts on topics of the greatest interest, and topics that are coming to the forefront.  We think of these courses as Master Classes, in that our speakers have impeccable credentials and are well-known throughout the industry. These innovative Courses provide insight to those responsible for making decisions and evaluating technologies on the horizon and currently available.  Offering our attendees the state-of-the-art in energy technologies, has enabled the Clearwater Clean Energy Conference to be the premier conference in this arena.

9:00 – 11:00 a.m. – Two Concurrent Short Courses

NOGuarantees: What Do They Really Mean? —  J.J. Letcavits is a Principal Engineer at the American Electric Power Service Corp. and is a Mechanical Engineer in the Steam Generation Section, responsible for combustion issues with the AEP coal fleet and for the tuning of the units for MATS compliance.  Alan Paschedag, Covanta, has been involved with over 50 low NOx burner projects.  In addition, he has evaluated RACT and NOx assessments of numerous individual units and facilities and played a lead role in the development of an Oxy fuel burner for a DOE project.

When procuring new combustion equipment, equipment upgrades and/or tuning services in order to meet NOx limits, it is important to understand the science of combustion for low NOx burners.  Thus, the guarantees possible are plant specific and include performance of much more equipment than just the burners. This short course will cover how combustion is affected by all aspects of the various streams that flow through the burners. A better understanding of why guarantees at one plant do not mean similar guarantees at another plant.

Introduction to Sorbents and Catalysts for Fossil Fuels and Pollution Control  —Dr. Evan J. Granite has had a distinguished research career as a chemical engineer.  He has been at the forefront of developing separation processes for removing harmful impurities from the products of coal combustion and gasification, such as mercury, arsenic and selenium.  Dr. Granite is a Research Chemical Engineer and Technical Project Leader at the Department of Energy, and a Professor of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the University of Pittsburgh.

Catalysts and sorbents are widely employed in the processing of fossil fuels. Atoms and molecules are not faithful partners on the surface of a solid, with competitive adsorption (“forming a couple”), desorption (“kicking a spouse to the curb”), and reaction (“a most radical makeover”) occurring over, and over, again. The surface of a catalyst or sorbent is a “chemical soap opera”, and not for the faint of heart. The drama occurring on the surface of a catalyst, and its close cousin the sorbent, easily exceeds that of any Hollywood movie. Like the ancient marriage brokers, these solids help make extraordinary unions and transformations of atoms and molecules. Our modern economy would not be possible without these magical materials, and many important examples will be shown for the processing of coal, natural gas, and petroleum. 

Catalysts or sorbents typically transform atoms and molecules through the Langmuir- Hinshelwood, Mars-Maessen, or Eley-Rideal mechanisms, and these will be illustrated. The “seven sacred steps” that occur during the use of any catalyst or sorbent will be shown.  Poisoning, deactivation, pressure drop, sintering, mass and heater transfer, characterization techniques, regeneration, sorbent breakthrough curves, cost considerations, and future research challenges will be discussed. The instructor will make information available from his research, as well as his courses on chemical kinetics and petroleum and natural gas processing, available to interested students.

11:15 a.m. – 1:15 p.m. – Two Concurrent Short Courses

Applications and Basics of Oxy-Fuel Combustion for Decarbonization —Dr. Lawrence E. Bool, Linde, Inc., is a recognized leader in the development of technologies that utilize industrial gases to improve combustion, increase energy efficiency, and reduce pollutant emissions from combustion processes.  He is a Linde Corporate Fellow and leads the development of oxy-fuel combustion applications across a wide range of industries.Oxy-fuel combustion has been used in many industries to enhance productivity and address environmental concerns.  This short course will provide background for oxy-fuel combustion, including identifying flue gas behavior more pronounced with oxygen enrichment.  Examples of industrial applications will also be included.

Radiation Fundamentals in Combustion Systems —Dr. Bradley Adams is an Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Brigham Young University and teaches courses in combustion, heat transfer, compressible flow, and leadership in a global context.This Course covers the role of radiation in overall energy balance, how radiation affects heat transfer in a boiler, radiative properties of gas, particles and surfaces (and how said properties impact radiative transfer), and radiation measurements.  (This Short Course concludes at 12:45 p.m.)

1:30 p.m. – 3:30 p.m. – Two Concurrent Short Courses

Samples and Sampling Statistics — Dr. Vander Wal, Professor of Energy and Mineral Engineering at Penn State University, teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in energy science, instrumental analyses, environmental measurements and sampling statistics. The course objective is to provide basic statistical tools that are routinely used in environmental applications. By focused topics and practical examples in air, water and soil analysis, attendees will achieve sufficient knowledge and understanding to apply these basic techniques. Descriptive statistics begins with the normal distribution for description of populations and for calculating confidence intervals and performing hypothesis testing. Inferential statistics begins with sampling. Methods include stratified, cluster and two-stage sampling will be briefly discussed. This course is intended for non-experts (professionals, researchers, students) seeking a brief introduction to the concepts of distributions, sampling methodology and error analysis – all in the context of environmental sampling, analysis and reporting.

Course Outline —Topics to be covered by theory and examples include the following:
1. Distributions 
   a) The normal distribution
   b) The standard normal distribution
2. Confidence intervals
3. Hypothesis testing
4. Sampling methodologies
   a) Simple random
   b) Stratified
   c) Cluster
   d) Two-stage

Introduction to Natural Gas Processing —Dr. Evan Granite has had a distinguished research career as a chemical engineer.  He has been at the forefront of developing separation processes for removing harmful impurities from the products of coal combustion and gasification, such as mercury, arsenic and selenium.  Dr. Granite is a Research Chemical Engineer and Technical Project Leader at the Department of Energy, and a Professor of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the University of Pittsburgh.Methane, the simplest hydrocarbon, is the major constituent of natural gas. Much of the methane produced worldwide is flared due to lack of pipelines. The prime use of methane is as a fuel for home heating and cooking, as well as electricity production. Natural gas is used to generate over 38% of the electricity in the United States. 

Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel. Nevertheless, raw natural gas is fascinating stew containing methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, n-butane, isopentane, n-pentane, hexane, helium, oxygen, hydrogen, water, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, mercury, and entrained particles. The moisture, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and mercury are typically removed, and the wet gas (C2 and higher hydrocarbons) are separated for the chemical industry. The processes for processing natural gas will be highlighted. The instructor will make information available from his research, as well as his courses on petroleum and natural gas processing, available to interested students. 

3:45 p.m. – 5:45 p.m. – Two Concurrent Short Courses

Coal Waste: Handling and Disposal, Pollution Impacts and Potential Utilization Dr. Dave Osborne, Industry Advisor, Somerset International Australia Pty Ltd. and Adjunct Professor in Minerals Processing, University of Queensland; and Soheil Jahandari, Atousa Khazaie, Prof. Zhong Tao and Prof. Zhonghua Chen, Western Sydney University, AUSTRALIA

During the past decade, the need for more responsible ways of disposing of mine waste and tailings has emerged. This has followed a series of very serious global environmental impacts including waste dumps and tailings storage facility failures, run-off water pollution and spontaneous combustion incidents. For coal mines, this has created many opportunities for more effectively dealing with all these unwanted outcomes.  One collective solution that has emerged has been to seek opportunities for revenue generation by creating secondary products from within the waste streams.  This can occur by recovering fine coal from a tailings stream and using the extra revenue towards the cost of a “dry” disposal solution.  There is also potential to recover “lost coal” from plant discards either after placement in dumps, or beforehand by additional crushing to liberate the saleable coal.  In addition to adding more coal into the primary product stream, there are other opportunities that can be considered such as recovery of other minerals including rare-earth elements (REEs) and recovery of some individual mineral concentrates, that have been reported.  Other potential secondary products include a variety of low-cost building products, ranging from road base, fabricated bricks and blocks, and roofing materials, as well as agricultural products such as soil additives and moisture retaining materials offered in various pellet forms.  No doubt there are many more bespoke products that can be considered, and this seminar will cover some of these by means of case studies drawn from the presenting teams’ experience as well as some of the basic concepts involved and other things that need to be considered.  

Power Cycles for Efficiency Gains —Dr. Ashwani Gupta is a Distinguished University Professor at the University of Maryland. His interests are in clean energy production and efficiency improvements of all kinds of fossil and biofuel using energy conversion systems with focus on fundamental understanding, diagnostics, simulation and analysis.

Different thermodynamic cycles will be covered for the conversion of chemical energy to thermal, mechanical and electricity conversion. This course will cover the fundamentals of different cycles used using different working fluids with the goal to enhance efficiency and improve performance. Special emphasis is given on waste energy utilization as this offers a means to enhance efficiency and performance.

2:45 p.m. Wednesday, July 27, 2021

The Hunter Plant Biomass Co-firing Demonstration 

Moderator: Les Marshall, Ontario Power Generation

The use of biomass to displace some fraction of coal in electric power production (biomass co-firing) has been viewed as one option for reducing the net carbon emissions from a coal-fired power plant. The University of Utah, Brigham Young University and Chalmers University have partnered with Pacificorp/Rocky Mountain Power to stage a full-scale demonstration of modified biomass co-firing at the Hunter Unit 3 500 MWe power plant, located near Castle Dale, Utah. The multi-year program included: 1) milling trials to assess the impact of co-feeding modified biomass and coal on pulverizer operation; 2) study of the mechanical stability of the biomass fuels; 3) life-cycle analysis of harvesting wood for use in co-firing; 4) bench- and pilot-scale firing of the coal and biomass blends; 5) production of ~750 tons each of torrefied and steam-exploded biomass pellets, and 6) full-scale demonstration of the firing of coal and biomass blends at the Hunter power plant.  The program explored a wide range of impacts at three physical scales, and this workshop will provide a series of presentations that address co-firing impacts on aerosol formation, deposition, NOx emissions, heat flux, and other balance-of-plant considerations, as well as provide CFD model analysis comparing results at multiple scales. 

Workshop Panelists include:

  • Klas Andersson, Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Energy Technology, Chalmers University, SWEDEN
  • Ken Clark, Rocky Mountain Power, Pacificorp
  • Teri Draper, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah
  • Eric Eddings, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah
  • Andrew Fry, Department of Chemical Engineering, Brigham Young University
  • Lauren Huntsman, Rocky Mountain Power, Pacificorp
  • Hong Shig-Shim, Reaction Engineering International
  • Jost Wendt, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah