Short Courses – Over the year’s a highlight of the Clearwater Clean Energy Conference has been the Short Courses on Sunday (July 25th), the Opening Day of the Conference.  We’ve enlisted the leading experts on topics of the greatest interest and topics that are coming into the forefront.  We think of these courses something like Master Classes, in that our speakers have impeccable credentials.  Our presenters are well-known throughout the industry. These innovative Classes provide those responsible for making decisions and evaluating technologies on the horizon and currently available.  Offering our attendees the state-of-the-art in energy technologies, has enabled the Clearwater Clean Energy Conference to be the premier conference in this field.

9:00 – 11:00 a.m. – Two Concurrent Short Courses

NOx Guarantees: What Do They Really Mean? — J.J. Letcavits, AEP, and Alan Paschedag, Covanta

When procuring new combustion equipment, equipment upgrades and/or tuning services in order to meet NOx limits, it is important to understand the science of combustion for low NOx burners. Thus, the guarantees possible are plant specific and include performance of much more equipment than just the burners. This short course will cover how combustion is affected by all aspects of the various streams that flow through the burners. A better understanding of why guarantees at one plant do not mean similar guarantees at another plant.

Introduction to Sorbents and Catalysts for Fossil Fuels and Pollution Control — Evan J. Granite, United States Department of Energy, University of Pittsburgh

Catalysts and sorbents are widely employed in the processing of fossil fuels. Atoms and molecules are not faithful partners on the surface of a solid, with competitive adsorption (“forming a couple”), desorption (“kicking a spouse to the curb”), and reaction (“a most radical makeover”) occurring over, and over, again. The surface of a catalyst or sorbent is a “chemical soap opera”, and not for the faint of heart. The drama occurring on the surface of a catalyst, and its close cousin the sorbent, easily exceeds that of any Hollywood movie. Like the ancient marriage brokers, these solids help make extraordinary unions and transformations of atoms and molecules. Our modern economy would not be possible without these magical materials, and many important examples will be shown for the processing of coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

Catalysts or sorbents typically transform atoms and molecules through the Langmuir- Hinshelwood, Mars-Maessen, or Eley-Rideal mechanisms, and these will be illustrated. The “seven sacred steps” that occur during the use of any catalyst or sorbent will be shown. Poisoning, deactivation, pressure drop, sintering, mass and heater transfer, characterization techniques, regeneration, sorbent breakthrough curves, cost considerations, and future research challenges will be discussed. The instructor will make information available from his research, as well as his courses on chemical kinetics and petroleum and natural gas processing, available to interested students.

11:15 a.m. – 1:15 p.m. – Two Concurrent Short Courses

Applications and Basics of Oxy-Fuel Combustion for Decarbonization — Dr. Lawrence E. Bool, Linde

 Oxy-fuel combustion has been used in many industries to enhance productivity and address environmental concerns.  This short course will provide background for oxy-fuel combustion, including identifying flue gas behavior more pronounced with oxygen enrichment. 

Examples of industrial applications will also be included.

Radiation Fundamentals in Combustion Systems — Prof. Brad Adams, Brigham Young University

 This Short Course covers the role of radiation in overall energy balance, how radiation affects heat transfer in a boiler, radiative properties of gas, particles and surfaces (and how said properties impact radiative transfer), and radiation measurements.  (This Short Course concludes at 12:45 p.m.)

1:30 p.m. – 3:30 p.m. – Two Concurrent Short Courses

Samples and Sampling Statistics — Dr. Vander Wal, Professor of Energy and Mineral Engineering at Penn State University where he teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in energy science, instrumental analyses, environ-mental measurements and sampling statistics.

The course objective is to provide basic statistical tools that are routinely used in environmental applications. By focused topics and practical examples in air, water and soil analysis, attendees will achieve sufficient knowledge and understanding to apply these basic techniques. Descriptive statistics begins with the normal distribution for description of populations and for calculating confidence intervals and performing hypothesis testing. Inferential statistics begins with sampling. Methods include stratified, cluster and two-stage sampling will be briefly discussed.

This course is intended for non-experts (professionals, researchers, students) seeking a brief introduction to the concepts of distributions, sampling methodology and error analysis – all in the context of environmental sampling, analysis and reporting.

Course Outline

Topics to be covered by theory and examples include the following:

Topics to be covered by theory and examples include the following:

  1. Distributions
    a) The normal distribution
    b) The standard normal distribution
    2. Confidence intervals
    3. Hypothesis testing
    4. Sampling methodologies
       a) Simple random
       b) Stratified
       c) Cluster
       d) Two-stage
Introduction to Natural Gas Processing — Evan Granite, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy

Methane, the simplest hydrocarbon, is the major constituent of natural gas. Much of the methane produced worldwide is flared due to lack of pipelines. The prime use of methane is as a fuel for home heating and cooking, as well as electricity production. Natural gas is used to generate over 38% of the electricity in the United States.

Natural gas is the cleanest fossil fuel. Nevertheless, raw natural gas is fascinating stew containing methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, n-butane, isopentane, n-pentane, hexane, helium, oxygen, hydrogen, water, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, mercury, and entrained particles. The moisture, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and mercury are typically removed, and the wet gas (C2 and higher hydrocarbons) are separated for the chemical industry. The processes for processing natural gas will be highlighted. The instructor will make information available from his research, as well as his courses on petroleum and natural gas processing, available to interested students.

3:45 p.m. – 5:45 p.m. – Two Concurrent Short Courses

Value From Tailings 101 — Dr. Dave Osborne, Somerset International Australia Pty Ltd., AUSTRALIA




2:45 p.m. Tuesday, July 27, 2021

The Hunter Plant Biomass Co-firing Demonstration Moderator: Les Marshall, Ontario Power Generation

The use of biomass to displace some fraction of coal in electric power production (biomass co-firing) has been viewed as one option for reducing the net carbon emissions from a coal-fired power plant. The University of Utah, Brigham Young University and Chalmers University have partnered with Pacificorp/Rocky Mountain Power to stage a full-scale demonstration of modified biomass co-firing at the Hunter Unit 3 500 MWe power plant, located near Castle Dale, Utah. The multi-year program included: 1) milling trials to assess the impact of co-feeding modified biomass and coal on pulverizer operation; 2) study of the mechanical stability of the biomass fuels; 3) life-cycle analysis of harvesting wood for use in co-firing; 4) bench- and pilot-scale firing of the coal and biomass blends; 5) production of ~750 tons each of torrefied and steam-exploded biomass pellets, and 6) full-scale demonstration of the firing of coal and biomass blends at the Hunter power plant.  The program explored a wide range of impacts at three physical scales, and this workshop will provide a series of presentations that address co-firing impacts on aerosol formation, deposition, NOx emissions, heat flux, and other balance-of-plant considerations, as well as provide CFD model analysis comparing results at multiple scales.